Bees, Butterflies And Wildlife: Research On Electromagnetic Fields And The Environment.
Electromagnetic fields from powerlines, cell phones, cell towers and wireless impacts the birds, bees, wildlife and our environment. Below is just a small example of the critical research that has been done on this issue.
Biological effects of a 765-kV transmission line: exposures and thresholds in honeybee colonies. Greenberg B, Bindokas VP, Gauger JR.
Honeybee colonies exposed under a 765-kV, 60-Hz transmission line at 7 kV/m show the following sequence of effects: 1) increased motor activity with transient increase in hive temperature; 2) abnormal propolization; 3) impaired hive weight gain; 4) queen loss and abnormal production of queen cells; 5) decreased sealed brood; and 6) poor winter survival. When colonies were exposed at 5 different E fields (7, 5.5, 4.1, 1.8, and 0.65-0.85 kV/m) at incremental distances from the line, different thresholds for biologic effects were obtained. Hive net weights showed significant dose-related lags at the following exposures: 7 kV/m, one week; 5.5 kV/m, 2 weeks; and 4.1 kV/m, 11 weeks. The two lowest exposure groups had normal weight after 25 weeks. Abnormal propolization of hive entrances did not occur below 4.1 kV/m. Queen loss occurred in 6 of 7 colonies at 7 kV/m and 1 of 7 at 5.5 kV/m, but not below. Foraging rates were significantly lower only at 7 and 5.5 kV/m. Hive weight impairment and abnormal propolization occur at lower E-field intensity than other effects and limit the "biological effects corridor" of the transmission line to approximately 23 m beyond a ground line projection of each outer phase wire. Intrahive E fields of 15-100 kV/m were measured with a displacement current sensor. Step-potential-induced currents up to 0.5 microA were measured in an electrically equivalent bee model placed on the honeycomb in a hive exposed at 7 kV/m. At 1.8 kV/m body currents were a few nanoamperes, or two orders of magnitude lower, and these colonies showed no effects. E-field versus electric shock mechanisms are discussed.