Shungite as the natural pantry of nanoscale reduced graphene oxide.


Shungite is presented as a natural carbon allotrope of a multilevel fractal structure that is formed by a successive aggregation of ~1 nm reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Turbostratic stacks of the sheets of ~1.5 nm in thickness and globular composition of the stacks of ~6 nm in size determine the secondary and tertiary levels of the structure. Aggregates of globules of tens of nanometers complete the structure. Molecular theory of graphene oxide, supported by large experience gained by the modern graphene science, has led to the foundation of the suggested presentation. The microscopic view has found a definite confirmation when analyzing the available empirical appearance of shungite. To our knowledge, this is the first time a geological process is described at quantum level.

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